Cardano is one of the popular blockchain platforms that has implemented the Proof of Stake(PoS) concept. Bitcoin and its blockchain platform are based upon the Proof of Work(PoW) concept resulting in huge consumption of energy for the mining process.

Like every other blockchain platform, it is open-source and of course decentralized. The participant nodes in PoS are incentivized based upon the amount of stake they hold and are randomly selected on who can validate the next block.

However, there exist some known problems in PoS protocol like ” nothing at stake problem” where the validating party can validate multiple nodes at the same time, in both correct chain and forged chain. This is planned to be mitigated by penalizing the validator in case of any wrongdoing.

I will include more details on the Proof of Stake concept in my next blog. Stay tuned.

Cardano Protocol Parameters:

For the sustainable existence of any crypto currency following parameters need to be consider that Cardano is expected to suffice.

1. Scalability

In order to enable scalability, Cardano allows faster transactions per second where verification of a transaction is done by slot leaders in each slot of an epoch. Bandwidth utilization is managed by creating multiple sub-networks.

2. Interoperability

Since it is sure that we will be having multiple cryptos coexisting, so, Cardano allows the operability of different cryptos in its network. Some even define it as an “Internet of blockchain” allowing seamless transactions between different cryptos.

3. Sustainability

In order to enable the sustainable existence of the Cardona network, it has a treasury model to fund its developers by selecting the best improvement proposal.

Cardano Use Cases

Since Cardano uses the smart contract, it is really useful for implementing numerous financial instruments like loan processing, lending, and borrowing, swapping of liquidity, insurance, margin lending, etc. Let me clear you about the concept of smart contracts in short.

Smart contracts are simply an if/else …then ..statement written code that fulfills or completes the contract once a certain condition is met. Once the condition is satisfied, the transaction proceeds, and finally completed that gets updated in the blockchain.

These smart contracts are immutable(cannot be changed ) and decentralized thus replacing the existing escrow method that required a trusted third party. Will it replace the lawyers?… Well, maybe, yes.

Other features of smart contracts are the ability to hold the funds, include a concession clause if the contract needs to be terminated or for fund refund, and even can trigger another contract. This will hugely reduce the intermediatory charges and speed of execution and implementation of a contract.

Crowdfunding will be the major beneficiary of the smart contract, by the implementation of proper protection of deposits and smart contract failures.

Another use case may be in the insurance sector. However, there seems some issue relating to it yet to be fully resolved. Like, relating or acting to data from the real world. How to determine, if an accident of the insurer has occurred and need to refund him/her? How to make real-world events visible in smart contracts without human intervention?

Cardano project teams are also involved in visionary projects like this, this and this.

Cardano Price Prediction

Based upon the Cardano blockchain, there exists crypto named ADA coin based upon the name of Ada Lovelace, the world’s first programmer. As of June, 6th 2021, the price of a single ADA is 1.66 US$. Some have made a huge bet on  ADA expecting the price to reach even $10 in the near future.

ADA price chart

ERA in Cardano

The Cardano era is the phase in the development of the Cardano blockchain network. Namely, it consists of five eras:  Byron, Shelley, Goguen, Basho, and Voltaire. It is obvious that in each era there will be changes in the functionality of the Cardano network.

Each era appears as subsequent phases but the discussion on research & development of each era can happen parallelly. More details on eras can be found here.

  1. Byron era: Foundation era
  2. Shelley era: Decentralization era
  3. Goguen era: Smart Contracts era
  4. Basho era: Scaling era
  5. Voltaire era: Governance era

The future of Cardano

Some consider it an underdog coin because of its huge future development plans. Some expect the price to reach 10 $ by 2022. As of today, 7th Jun 2021, the price of 1 ADA is 1.6758 USD.

Cardano wallet

Since Cardano is not based upon the ERC20 token like ETH, the Cardano developers have come up with a completely different wallet for its blockchain. One of the most popular wallets is Daedalus that is available in the Desktop version for Mac and PC. Other popular wallets are Yoroi and Infinito wallet that are available as a mobile app.

Elliot wave analysis of Cardano (ADA)

After the huge crypto crash in May 2021, ADA is trying to recover some of that in recent times. Cardano seems to have formed ascending triangle where wave A to D is complete and on the way to E wave pattern before facing the next pullback. At the pullback, the setup for the main wave C can be anticipated.

Cardano price and Elliot wave pattern

FAQs on Cardano

Below are the couple of frequently asked queries with quick answers.

Who is the founder of Cradano?

Cardano network was developed by a Hong Kong-based company named IOHK. The CEO of Cardano is Charles Hoskinson who is its founder and also the co-founder of Ethereum.

How and where to buy Cardano ADA ?

ADA can be easily brought from the popular crypto trading apps like Binance, Huobi, and Bittrex with fiat currencies.

Learn more on crypto…

What Is The Double Spending Problem? How Does Bitcoin Solve The Double Spending Problem?

Is It A Good Idea To Invest In Dogecoin?

Dogecoin was initially introduced as a meme coin in the crypto world in 2013. Similar to Bitcoin, Dogecoin is a  decentralized cryptocurrency based upon a proof of work concept.

Proof of work means a transaction is said to be successfully completed once the verifier completes a certain set of mathematical algorithms using the computational power which is different from the proof of stake mechanism.

It is basically a medium for P2P transactions based upon the jokes or memes shared on the internet about the huge fluctuations in cryptocurrencies.

Dogecoin has built a strong community in recent times in forums like Reddit, discord, and tweeter. Dogecoin gained rapid attraction after the tweeter endorsement by SpaceX founder Elon Musk.

However, the rapid trend and increase in price as compared to USD can be attributed to strong and dedicated Dogecoin communities supporting its existence since 2013.

Since the financial crisis in 2007, Bitcoin came into existence and since then altcoins like Dogecoin have gradually spread around the world. This trend has become more prevalent in 2021 after the events like retail investors winning over the hedge fund manager in highly shorted GME stocks. Dogecoin became the under-dog coin representing the small crypto investors and some even become millionaires because of it.

Crypto enthusiasts consider dogecoin as a fun and harmless cryptocurrency. Currently, Dogecoin has a market cap of more than  90 billion dollars. Dogecoin has a total supply of 129 billion so far. It is also the fastest coin as it has a transaction speed of about 1 minute compared to Bitcoin that has a transaction speed of 10 to 20 minutes.

Like other crypto currencies, it helps to solve the double spending problem.

Dogecoin communities:

Dogecoin has very hardworking, fun-loving communities with strong support towards the concept of crypto and blockchain. Dogecoin communities have a strong sense of cooperation as they have been actively involved in helping the people in Kenya by donating $50k to help mitigate the water crisis.

Dogecoin Forum

This community is not so active these days. But it was the pioneer for the creation of dogecoin, creating one of the trending cryptos of 2021. The community no longer talks about the development, but rather on the valuation and sale of the dogecoin.

Dogecoin Forum thread

Dogecoin’s Reddit Channel

It’s one of the active communities related to dogecoin.The majority of related posts are memes of dogecoin and crypto.It’s fun to see people sharing their ideas on the future of dogecoin at the same time refreshing people with dogecoin memes.

People also share methods on how to buy and sell dogecoin.

Dogecoin in Reddit

Dogecoin discord Community

It is another active official dogecoin community. People from all around the world are selflessly sharing their ideas and discussing openly and sharing memes.It has channels related to food, gaming music, and arts. It’s fun to be in this community.


Being an open source project forked from Litecoin, it has source code in github. The source code has not been updated since 2017

Dogecoin in Github

Dogecoin’s Twitter handle @dogecoin

It is an official twitter handle of dogecoin sharing information and gif memes in tweeter. It has 1.5 million followers so far.

Dogecoin in Twitter

Unofficial telegram groups

There is no official telegram channel for dogecoin.But people from different interest groups have created telegram groups claiming to be official.

Future of Dogecoin:

Dogecoin like other altcoins have a different roles in the future.In my view, the strength of altcoin will depend upon the support from the community.It does not matter if Elon Musk or other celebrities endorse or not or add as a currency in his company, but all the credit goes to the regilent communities of Dogecoin who made this happen and made it the most trending crypto currency of 2021.

Whatever be the intrinsic value of the dogecoin even the paper money has intrinsic value of zero, since people have accepted it, its does have potential utility and its like betting for the future.It cannot be ignored the role of blockchain technology in the next financial revolution.

From the price perspective, the price of dogecoin will decline due to huge supply.The supply of dogecoin will double in 20 years to discount the decreasing inflation rate of 5%.

If you own dogecoin, HOLD tight, because it’s fun, and it feels proud to be born at such a wonderful time.

What does Elliot wave say about dogecoin?

The question among the dogecoin enthusiasts is will it ever touch 1 $ mark.

In May,2021 it was at minor wave 5 after the decline of the 4th wave, touching the price mark of 0.1637 cents. 

What does Elliot wave says about doge coin
What does Elliot wave says about doge coin

Let’s assume, it has not generated the 5th wave, and check with Fibonacci extension,Its wave 5 extends, then it will be a violent crash for dogecoin.

Doge coin from Elliot wave prospective
Doge coin from Elliot wave prospective

Blue Screen of Death (BSOD) error screen in Windows 10.

Blue screen of Death, commonly known as BSOD is a nightmare for PC users., normally caused by the OS not being able to fix the error and load properly. Before directly diving into solving the Blue screen of death let’s first identify the probable causes of this issue.

  1. Incompatible windows update
  2. Driver Issue
  3. Damaged upgrade files
  4. HDD or RAM issue
  5. Bad sector in HDD

Incompatible Windows update:

You might be repeatedly getting the windows CVE update in your laptop pushed by Microsoft to mitigate any vulnerabilities. However, sometimes these updates might not be compatible with your version or may not be supported, or may have been installed improperly. Resulting in Blue Screen of Death.


Check-in Control Panel > Windows Update, the update that has failed( Particularly check the KB value), Check for any recently installed KB value. Remove from cmd as admin: wusa /uninstall /kb:5000802

You can visit: Microsoft Update Catalog to search for the specific update by its KB value.

and download and install the required update compatible with the model of your laptop.

Driver Issue:

Driver update can be another major cause of the BSOD. Always verify where you downloaded from and compatibility of the driver file.

Go to device manager; uninstall any peripheral device drivers that were recently installed one by one like printer drivers, or other add-on devices, then reboot your PC.

HDD or RAM issue:

In order to properly identify if the issue is duo to hardware failure or software error, first disable the automatic restart, Its default, so if you get error code 

Right Click > My computer > Goto Properties > goto Advanced System Settings >Advanced > Setting (in Startup and recovery): Uncheck the automatic restart

How to disable auto-reboot in Windows 10
How to disable auto-reboot in Windows 10
Fig: Disable auto reboot in Windows 10

This helps to identify if it is a hardware issue or not.

If it’s an HDD or RAM issue, first take off the HDD or RAM from the motherboard and clean it with a soft cloth, and place it properly. If the issue still persists, then verify with any spare HDD or RAM as the HDD issue may be permanent due to a bad sector in it as it has a limited life span.

Damaged upgrade files:

Sometimes, upgrade files may not have been properly downloaded due to interruption during the the download process.

Remove the recently installed application

Check list of updates pending in Windows Update Menu
Fig: List of updates pending in Windows Update Menu

How to solve BSOD error during the upgrade process of Windows 10?

Step 1 :

Disconnect non-essential peripherals: such as second monitor, printers, external HDD or any connected USB thumb drives. Disconnect all devices except mouse ,keyboard and central monitor

Step 2:

Uninstall the drivers and install newer drivers. This will resolve the issue due to driver compatibility. Also, check for any available updates for the drivers from the device manager.

Update drivers from device manager
Fig: Update drivers from device manager

Step 3:

If the issue still persists, then some incompatible applications might be causing the OS to crash. Check if any newly installed applications are interrupting the OS functioning.

I will share in you in my next blog on how to identify the incompatible applications

Step 4:

Fresh OS upgrade: If all the above mentioned solutions do not work, then I would recommend you to initiate a fresh download of the windows 10 upgrade. First clean the previously setup file from Disk Cleanup. Clear all temp files from temp and %temp locations Once done, then you can initiate the Upgrade of Windows 10 once more.

If the setup file is in a USB thumb drive, I recommend to recreate the boot-able  media again in that drive.

Step 5: Fresh installation of OS

I think almost 99 % of the time fresh installation of your OS  will resolve the issue by saving you the hassle of determining the root cause and fixing the specific issue when you don’t have that much time to do research on the issue.

However, you may need to create a recovery drive to backup all your data to prevent the loss of your data.

What are the error codes in Blue screen of death (BSOD) ?

Error codes in BSOD depend upon the version of your OS.Complete list of error codes are here.

Some of the most common error codes are as below:

Error CodeMessage
0x00000022   FILE_SYSTEM

How to troubleshoot when you cannot access the OS?

Insert a bootable media, Instead of clicking the Install Now option, you need to go to repair the computer. Then goto, Troubleshoot > Advanced  Option > Select Command prompt. The type the below for checking for any sector issues in your HDD.

chkdsk /f /r
chkdsk /f /r repair tool to repair sector of Hard disk.

Read Also: How to Fix Chrome Memory Leaks and Reduce Memory Usage?

How to plan a best IS audit strategy?

As the use of technologies immensely increased in the domains of finance and business, the number of fraudulent activities and data leakage has skyrocketed. As a result, the role of IS audit to verify, validate the controls in such systems to maintain legal compliance has become invaluable.

A typical IS audit process includes the following agendas:

  • Creating the audit plan
  • Selecting the audit procedures
  • Reporting a communicating audit results

The preliminary step of the IS audit is to fulfill the audit charter by planning the audit schedule. The audit schedule determines which audit is to be planned and conducted.

In order to create an audit plan, risk assessment is necessary by including the upcoming plan, past incidents, and portions where management is concerned. At the same time, effective and efficient audit resources should also be planned and finally, scheduling the audit process – when convenient for the business process.

So, audit planning can be summarized as :

  • Determine the scope of the audit.
  • What is the objective of an audit ?
  • Are the sufficient resources allocated to complete the audit process?
  • Is auditee and area of audit available to provide the requested support when needed?
  • What is the project timeline?

How to fulfill the objective of the IS audit?

Every audit process has a specific defined objective.

It is based on:

  • To verify if specific controls are in place.
  • To validate the controls are working effectively by properly performing input validation, configuration management, and output.
  • How the CIA is maintained- Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability?
  • To ensure legal compliance with the policy and procedures.
  • Are staff aware of processes and procedures? Do they have sufficient knowledge and skills?
  • Review the documented resources on policy and procedures being followed.

The audit planning should be concerned on:

Audit Risk: The risk the audit can miss something?

Limitation: Unavailability of information, or personnel for the support.

Change in scope: Sometimes, a new priority or change may occur.

Reporting: Clearly articulate whom to report the audit result, who will be responsible for the action. Timely reporting on serious findings that may require immediate action.

Use of external experts: Check for cases when an outside expert is required who have required tools and expertise in the respective field and make sure of NDAs (Non-Disclosure Agreements) to protect the information.

Checklist Auditor.
The auditor doesn’t know the subject area.
An unprepared auditor.

Audit Planning Process:

Always seek to understand how the business works:

  • Understand the business.
  • Evaluate the risk and challenges.
  • Review documentation like prior audits, policies & procedures, organization chart, laws, regulations, and standards.

Validate the risk:

  • Is the risk assessment up-to-date?
  • Is the risk scope aligned with the audit scope?
  • Review risk register (What are the known risk ? What is the inherent risk?)

Tips for Better Audit Planning:

  • Do not recommend the existing controls or the controls that are being planned.
  • Determine existing controls?
  • Inquire controls being planned?
  • Give credit to those that have been worked on.
  • Notify the auditee of schedules, duration, and required support like system access, documentation, personnel, description of work to be performed, and how that will provide value.

The hype of the 5G network has already started. All of the telecom carrier companies across the world are announcing the launch date of 5G. As a matter of fact, 5G is coming and is sure to change how we experience technology and interaction with different gadgets.

Time is taken to download two-hour-long movies in 3G, 4G, and 5G.

The 5G is basically a software-defined network based on the cloud. The 5G is going to be much faster than its predecessors 3G and 4G. It will have 100 times more capacity than 4G. This is going to drastically improve our current internet speed. For example, to download a two-hour-long movie, it will be taking 26 hours on 3G and 6 minutes in 4G whereas in 5G it will be taking 3.6 seconds only. This sounds incredibly fast, right? Besides internet speed, the response time will also be faster in 5G.

1G started the usage of very first cell phones.2G allows us to do texting for the very first time.3G brought us to this vast internet.4G made everything faster and content access and delivery on the internet faster. As the number of online users has reached billions, 4G how now reached its threshold of data traffic. Now, 5G is the new foundation for all our recent trending topics that the internet is filled with like VR, IoT, Autonomous driving hologram projection, and all the others.

5G is basically based upon five major foundations.


2. Small Cell Technology

3. Massive MIMO(Multiple Input, Multiple Output)

4. Beamforming

5. Full Duplex

5G Foundations

5G is going to have a very low latency rate, that is the amount of delay between sending and receiving of data is going to be a bare minimum. For 4G its about 100-200 ms. But 5G will offer the latency as low as 1ms which is much lower than human reaction time which is 200 ms.

5G Latency as compared to 4G and human reaction time

The data rate will be 20 Gbps on 5G as compared to 4G which gives the data rate of 10-20Mbps. Moreover, the response time will be 0.001s for 5G which is much lower than 4G which has a response time of 0.045 seconds.

Response time comparison between 4G and 5G

It will allow to interact with people and object on real-time, virtually no lag. For example, the surgery could be performed from a remote location in real-time using a robotic hand without any delay.

The major boon will be for an autonomous vehicle which will require a continuous stream of data to be transmitted. Nevermind, for internet gaming, it will be a game-changer as well, Imagine playing Fortnite and PUBG in VR headset in real-time with zero lag.

Frequency spectrum used in 3G/4G vs 5G

5G uses a millimeter-wave that has a shorter wavelength and high frequency.
5G uses the frequency ranging from 1G Hz up to 70 GHz.This means, more transmitters required every 100m.

5G radio wave as compared to other waves in the frequency spectrum

The risk of 5G  to human health is yet to determined. As a matter of fact, no real test has been done to the impact of wireless radion on human health. Research done in China has pointed out of carcinogenic impact on the human brain and can be a carcinogenic impact on brain tumors and cancer.

To have the heating impact on the human body due to radiation, the frequency must be at the range of million GHz.

No ‘good’ evidence has not been determined and no major research has been done on this matter. However, absence of evidence is not evidence of absence

Albeit, 5G is going to be a game-changer and drastically optimize our wireless experience .Sit tight and enjoy the technology ride.

Double spending simply means spending the same money twice. For example, you enter a coffee shop, took some sips of Espresso. Now, you take a 10 $ bill and pay for it. That 10$ bill cannot be simply be paid twice, as the ‘real’ 10$ bill has been handover from you to the waiter. You paid it and it’s gone from you unless you steal from him/her(which have a minimum change of happening and of course other severe consequences !).

By all means, that 10 $ note is gone from you and you have been given a cup of coffee in exchange(a true barter system, right !). Once you give that bill, the payment was instantly made and verified by the waiter.

But, unlike our traditional transaction method, the cryptocurrencies like bitcoin, there is no human involved for the confirmation and verification of the payment you just made. So, it can lead to a double spending problem. Since the digital information can be easily reproduced, the same currency can be copied resulting in double spending problem as there is no actual being to confirm the payment.

The main feature of the Satoshi’s paper(Satoshi Nakamoto: An anonymous individual who pioneered the Bitcoin through his bitcoin white paper) was its unique solution to prevent the double spending problem by introducing a universal ledger system known as the blockchain.

Every single transaction made in bitcoin is included in the shared ledger or blockchain. These transactional blocks are stored in this ledger in an orderly fashion with time-stamp attached to each of these little transactions. That’s why it is known as the blockchain.

The blockchain gets longer and longer over time where more and more transaction records are added. The blockchain is maintained by the network of nodes that use the bitcoin software. Since the process of adding the transaction records to the blockchain required intense computation and algorithms, it takes a certain amount of time to verify it. When a transaction block is added to this public ledger known as the blockchain, all the nodes on the blockchain network keep the copy of the global ledger or blockchain. This entire process requires an intense amount of computational power. It’s really difficult to hack into the system as its complexity increases each seconds.No one can manage such expense of hardware and electricity cost single-handedly just to hack a single bitcoin from the blockchain unless you have control over more than 50% of the hash power of the blockchain network.

Our transportation has not changed over 100 years. We have been using trains, cars, bikes, planes, and even horses. Hyperloop is basically a new concept and is being considered as the fifth mode of transportation. So, what actually is a hyperloop?

How doeas Hyperloop works?

Hyperloop consists of pod or capsule which is used to transport people or goods that is operated in a sealed tube at near vacuum environment. The pod floats over the surface of the tube by magnetic levitation. So, there is no friction.No air friction means the pod traveling at an average speed of 900 kmph with a top speed up to 1220 kmph. The system is powered by a solar panel so it is extremely energy efficient. As a matter of fact, the hyperloop generates more energy than it consumes as a closed system.

The concept of hyperloop backs to 1909 when rocket pioneer Robert Godard purposed similar concept for a vacuum train. However, it was recently brought to light by a technopreneur Elon Musk. When he was stuck in LA traffic for his meeting, he thought for the concept for that fifth mode of transport as we know as ‘hyperloop’.In 2013, he drafted the blueprint for the Hyperloop, he then put the challenge for developing this to the engineering community at a competition.

The test for the Hyperloop is being done in a 500-meter Devloop track in Nevada desert. There are three companies currently involved in the development of the Hyperloop technology and bring it to real life.

  • Hyperloop technologies
  • Hyperloop transporter technology Inc.
  • SpaceX

Recently Richard Branson and his Virgin Group has also joined to invest in hyperloop.

Science behind Hyperloop

The passenger capsule and freight capsule are propelled by an electromagntic motor in a low-pressure hyperloop tube. The low pressure minimizes the friction due to air. But, even a small amount of air in the tube can cause a problem. Due to the Kantrowitz limit, at lower speeds, there is enough space between the pod and the tube for the air to pass through. But, as the speed increases, this reaches a limit, the pod begins to push a large volume of air ahead of it. This cause the speed of the pod to decrease immediately. This can be fixed by using the compressor fan in front of the pod and redirects it to the back for the additional thrust or to the air bearing to levitate to the pod on a cushion of air.

Why Hyperloop?


Hyperloop is much cheaper to build. The cost to build is cheaper by 4 billion dollars for the same distance as compared to the purposed California high-speed railway system that will be costing around 10 billion dollars. So, the ticket can be as low as 25 $ per trip for LA to San Fransico taking only 30 minutes for the travel.


The Hyperloop is much safer than other modes of transport including air transport. The tubes stand over the pillar- these pillars have a lower footprint as it is above the ground. In the case of an earthquake, each tube track can sway.

Freight Transport

The Hyperloop will transform freight transportation as it allows the fastest delivery of raw materials to the manufacturing units at a very low time. This will increase the productivity and efficiency of the industrial complex.

Moreover, Hyperloop will also transform our migration phenomena as people can reach the big cities at a very less time. They can choose to live in places with low housing cost and cheaper cost of living.

Some critics claim that the experience in hyperloop can be unpleasant and frightening as the passengers are riding in sealed and windowless capsules at a lower pressure environment. The passengers have to experience significant acceleration forces and level of noise at near sonic speed. The noise due to air being compressed vibrations and joltings will be significant. At such speed of Hyperloop, a passenger will also be experiencing lateral G-force at curves of the tube. Some also literate the situation as “an elephant sitting on the chest.”Musk has told that the route will be decreased to be maximum of 0.5 G.

The Hyperloop is still in the development phase. There are several problems that need to be solved before bringing to the general public. However, the potential is huge and implementation is real. Because of huge prospect, many countries have shown great interest in developing Hyperloop in their cities including India, China, UAE, Russia, South Korea, and Europe.No wonder, Hyperloop experience will be really fascinating.

The term DevOps has been derived from the combination of two words, ‘Development‘ and ‘Operation.’ In the world of solos’, the concept of DevOps is a disruptive technology that brings the culture of collaboration. Of Course, the inception of DevOps came out of frustration due to the division between the developer team and operation team.

The DevOps movement always gives preference over the collaboration between the people than processes and tools. In DevOps philosophy, outcomes start appearing from ‘Day One.’ People are working on the changes rather than stressing over a plan.

In the past developing trends, the team used to works separately for a while, and the last task is accomplished by merging the changes. This made merging the changes made on the code ‘a headache’ and also resulted in bugs being accumulated for an extended period without being corrected. The final result was slowing the updates and extension of delivery time.

How does a simple DevOps scenario works?

Before initiating a project, developer, tester and operation team meet and discuss on how to create working software that could be readily deployed. After finalizing on the context and working module, the developer team each day deliver with a new code. The working module is then pushed to a central repository using version control system tools like Git. Before performing each commit, the developer might want to run the local unit tests on the code as an extra verification procedure before to integration.

Continuous Integration (CI) tools automatically build and runs unit tests on new code changes to immediately surface any errors. If the particular module is successfully tested over the test server, then deployment can be performed through a single button click.

Advantages of DevOps:

  • Through the concept of microservices and continuous delivery, it is easier and faster to prepare a release update. Thus, it helps the business grow more efficiently.
  • The automation tools used in release process helps to deliver innovation and improve the product more frequently rapidly.
  • The system and application become more reliable and stable due to the practice of continuous integration (CI) and continuous delivery (CD) before being presented to end-users.
  • The scalability is higher due to the concept of microservices and API design.

DevOps Practices:

Here are the top development operation practices you need to follow according to your programming skills.

Continuous Integration:

Continuous integration (CI) is a DevOps practice where the programmer merges their build codes to the central repository. The version of the system is committed to the repositories like Git where after the codes are automatically built and test, and further can be pushed to the production servers. The merging is done regularly, and each version of the build is updated based upon the test result.

Continuous Delivery:

You can’t just ask customers what they want and then try to give that to them. By the time you get it built, they’ll want something new.

Steve Jobs

CD completely redefines how a product is delivered to end users. Each time developers present an application module, it can be automatically built, tested and deployed to the end user through a simple ‘push‘ button. Any feature addition and change just get simpler.


A monolithic application design always slows down the application development as well as for making changes to the existing design. Because all the services are tightly coupled and always create a dilemma on what be the impact on the portion of the application when change is made on other portion.

The basic principle of microservice architecture is to divide a single application into multiple services. Each of the services has its own scope and any communication necessary required between the services is made through API ‘calls’.

Blue/Green deployment:

The basic concept of blue/green deployment is to have two identical production environment where blue is ‘live‘ and green is ‘idle‘. This greatly reduces the application downtime. As a new application is deployed, it is initially deployed to the ‘green’ server. After the successful testing on the green server, then all the required IP is pointed to the ‘green’ server and it goes ‘live’. If any problem occurs, the switch can be turned back to the ‘idle’ one to direct all the traffic to it.

However, this approach might not be feasible if cost is the factor as well as database-dependent application.

Chaos Monkey:

This practice has been invented and popularized by Netflix.”What will happen when a monkey enters a Data Center? A monkey may randomly rip off the cables and may kick the routers and servers. “This is the situation a DC operation team must be able to face to make a system resilient. Netflix has developed a program that randomly to shut down a server and IT managers need to mitigate this situation by keeping the system operational even without that server.

A developer always thinks of making a system more agile while an operation team want the system to be more stable. So, a delicate balance is required to maintain a good relationship between a developer team and operation team otherwise it might blow up. DevOps culture with the help of numerous automation tools can greatly add value to the development to deployment phase and satisfy the end users on time.

Last but not least, the DevOps is not a magic stick and transformation doesn’t happen overnight. By properly understanding the values of DevOps and making small incremental changes, we can embark on DevOps journey right away.